The Lost Churches of the Cracow Suburb on the Plans of Lviv
A look at old city maps will reveal the prominent role given to the demonstration of sacred buildings in Lviv. The highest number of churches in Lviv, with the highes concentration, once stood in the Cracow Suburb.
Churches of the two quarters of Lviv were in different jurisdiction. The churches of the Cracow quarter answered to the warden, and paid taxes to the King. The churches of the Galician quarter were under the authority of the city magistrate.
The economic decline of the city, and the impoverishment of suburbian residents brought decline to many churches of the Cracow quarter, especially wooden ones.
On June 12, 1781 a law came into effect in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, requiring the closing of all monasteries and monastic orders not engaged in education or care for the sick.
About 15 monastic orders ceased their activities in Lviv over the next few years. As a result, most of the churches of the Cracow quarter disappeared or changed jurisdiction by the early 1800s.
Listed below are 10 churches, marked on maps created prior to 1772, as well as on the earliest Austrian maps of Lviv. By comparing various maps, we have attempted to locate the sites of the lost churches of the Cracow quarter, and provide brief historical information on them.
Church of the Discovery of the Holy Cross
Ivan Krypiakevych locates the former site of this church at 29, Shevchenka St., close to today’s Bortnianskoho St. A chapel stood in this place, beginning from 1413, with the grounds around it used for burial of victims of epidemics. In 1584, after the many citizens lost their lives topestilence, the money raised from the sale of their estates was used to build a church.
Szaraniewicz, mentions it as ""the Church of the Discovery of the Holy Cross at Hlohovshchyna [Khorushchyna], between today’s Horodotska and Janowska Streets...". Zubrytskyi’s chronicle says the church was constructed in 1538, while Chodynicki dates the construction to 1584.
St. Theodore’s Church
According to Krypiakevych, the church 2stood opposite St. Nicholas Church, on the other side of the Volynska Road". Zimorowicz mentions the church under 1453.
The parish of St. Theodore reached from Krakowski Square to the Church of St. Paraskeva. In 1706, a new wooden church was built in place of the old one. As of 1743, the church had three altars, a gilded engraved iconostasis, and old icons. Around the church was a "spacious, fenced churchyard with a three-storied belfry, containing four bells".
After 1783, the parish was liquidated, and the church was demolished to provide construction materials. 1800 also features as the year of the final disassemblage of the church.
Built prior to 1544 opposite the Bridgettine Nunnery. The Zimorowicz chronicle mentions the church under 1453. Holubets mentiones the consecration of a churchyard at what was then 53, Kazimirowska St. (today’s Horodotska) in 1926.
As of 1743, the condition of the wooden Annunciation Church was good. "Next to the church was a belfry, a parsonage, and a school". In 1802 the church was demolished due to its unsatisfactory condition.
St. Stanislaus Church
The Church of St. Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr stood in the beginning of Horodotska St. The church was founded around 1370 by the city residents. An affiliated hospital was founded in 1497.
After 1784, the hospital was closed, and the church demolished. According to Szaraniewicz, by the time of the demolition it was a stone church. Since the church features on city maps dating to the early nineteenth century, we can surmise that it was only demolished after 1802.
Holy Cross Church
This Armenian church was constructed in 1639 by Paolo Romano, with construction funded by Izaak Agopsowicz. According to Krypiakevych, the church "stood behind the Missionary church in Zamarstynowska St." In the mid-eighteenth century the church was in the administration of the Theatines, who came from Italy to start a Papal College, dedicated to educating Armenians.
In 1747 the College and the church were sold to a missionary order, which opened a seminary. In 1784 the building of the seminary was converted to a military prison and barracks, while the church became a prisoner chapel.
St. Anne Church
This church stood at the foot of the High Castle, behind St. Onuphrius’ Church. In 1363 a new St. Anne church was built, together with a monastery of the Armenian order of St. Basil.
In 1796, after the edict ordering the liquidation of monasteries, the church and the monastery were demolished.
According to Krypiakevych, the church was first mentioned under 1453, and “stood in today’s Zamarstynivska St., on its left side.”
According to Chodynicki, the church stood in the Zhovkivske suburb, and was constructed before 1544. The church burned in a fire of 1623, and again in 1695, when it was burned by Tatars, together with corpses of their warriors. A school and a brotherhood (mentioned in 1624) were active at this church.
A new church, built in 1743, was a bright, majestic building with three cupolas. As of 1765, the building was in decline. The church was demolished in 1774.
Church of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple
This was the church of the Basilian nunnery, which Szaraniewicz locates at Mostow Murowanych St. (today’s Zamarstynivska). Vuitsyk places this church at 5, Haidamatska St.
The contemporary popular name of the Basilian nunnery was “Chernychky”. The church was constructed in mid-seventeenth century. After the Austrian edict, in 1809, the church was disassembled and sold to Maciuszyn. In 1828, the Austrian government purchased the land that formerly belonged to the nuns, and built a caserne.
Church of St. John the Evangelist
This church stood in the forest on the northern side of the High Castle. The wooden monastery and church were constructed in 1640. Construction was funded by a local resident Simeon Sodom. In 1679, the church’s brotherhood constructed a new stone church. In 1736 Konstanty Papara gave the monastery a field and meadow ground, adjacent to the monastery’s grounds. The monastery was closed in 1802, the church demolished and sold for building materials in 1809.
Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos
St. Barbara’s Church in Tarnawka had stood at the intersection of today’s Khmelnytskoho and Donetska St. The church was constructed in 1630, and its construction was funded by Aleksander Zborowski. A brotherhood was active at the church.
In 1710 a new wooden church with two altars was constructed in place of the previous one. This church was demolished in the early 1800s.
Entry by: Serhiy Tereshchenko
Translated by: Pavlo Hrytsak