Lviv on Maps by Jozef Chowaniec
Late nineteenth-early twentieth century maps of the city of Lviv demonstrate the dynamic development of this Royal Capital City. Among the most informative and precise of these, are maps by Jozef (Józef) Chowaniec. Not much is know about this cartographer. In 1887 Chowaniec was one of the founders of the Society of Full Technicians (Towarzystwa ukonczonych technikow), which eventually laid the foundations of the more renowned Polytechnical Society. In 1887, Chowaniec held the position of Royal Geometrician.
From 1890 onwards, the name of Józef Chowaniec was mentioned among the officials of the City Construction Administration. Chowaniec held the posts of Adjunct Engineer, and later Engineer, almost until World War I. A list of members of the Society for the Development and Improvement of the City of Lviv dating to 1894 also mentions Chowaniec. In 1902, Józef Chowaniec participated in the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Polytechnical Society as a delegate from the City Construction Administration. As one of the founders of the Polytechnical Society, he was awarded a memorial diploma.
The early twentieth century address books tell us that Jozef Chowaniec resided at 2, Kurkowa (today Lysenka) St. From 1906 onwards, mentions of Chowaniec exist among the information on state geometrists and engineers employed at the City Council. The last mention of Jozef Chowaniec dates to 1913. Retired City Engineer Jozef Chowaniec, with his wife Jadwiga, lived at 33, Kurkowa St.
The first maps by Józef Chowaniec were published at Jedrzej (Jędrzej) Koskiewicz’s Lithographic Establishment. In the late 1870s, this lithography was situated in building No. 34 in Sobieskiego St. (now Brativ Rohatyntsiv St.). Kostkiewicz was one of the co-founders of the First Society Printing House in Lviv, which published the "Guidebook from Cracow to Lwów..." This book contained the first map known to have been drawn by Chowaniec.
Two known reprints of this same map exist, with some revisions and additions. The most widespread addition has to do with extending the list of the most significant buildings. A separate publication of this map, which Czerner dates to 1887, shows the city’s division into districts by marking the buildings in various colors.
Another similar city map, in drawn by toned lithography, was published by H. Altenberg's Bookstore in 1892 (Najnowszy Dokładny plan król. stoł. miasta Lwowa ze skorowidzem. 1:10 800. Spis waźnieszych publicznych budynków (132)).
All of these maps were printed on the scale 1:10 800. The maps were published to help the visitors to Lviv orient themselves around the city. They focus on city territory around the central part, detailing the chief public buildings. This is possibly the only map to provide the names and situations of hotels in Lviv.
In 1890 Jozef Chowaniec developed the Plan of the Royal Capital City of Lwów. On the basis of this, a series of very precise city maps were published. All of the maps in the series were published using the scale of 1:7 200. These new detailed city plans were prepared and published to bring the operation of the City Construction Administration in accordance with the new rules for ordering construction in Lviv, approved in 1885.
All of the maps were published, using techniques of color lithography, and provide detailed configuration of city construction. The maps highlight district boundaries and city limits. The names are provided in Polish. The maps also show the routes of the horsedrawn, and, later, the electric, trolley, with all the stops. Publication was funded by the City Council, and the mpas themselves were published at Antoni Przyszlak’s Lithographical Establishment, which operated in Lviv from 1883 until 1921.
The analysis of maps of Lviv, drawn by Chowaniec, will show the city’s development in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One peculiarity of the way the maps were drawn lies in the fact that the maps show certain objects that were still in planning stage. Thus, the map of 1890 shows the building of the Industry Museum (at today’s 20, Svobody Blvd.), or the building of the Industry School (today’s 17, Teatralna St.), and "Konarski" School (today’s building 15 in Teatralna St.).
Of special note is the detail of the ultimately unrealized project of introducing the steam trolley in Lviv. The map of 1890 shows the projected connection of the Lwow-Belzec railway with the Steam Trolley Station in Janowska (today’s Shevchenka) St., in addition to several stations of the steam trolley. The project of introducing the steam trolley in Lviv was under consideration from 1888 onwards. The idea was shelved, and preference was given to the electric trolley.
Another map by Chowaniec, published as a supplement to "Lwow under autonomy, 1870 – 1895," additionally shows the network of aqueducts and canals. This is the only map to show the Summer Theater on Waly Gubernatorskie, constructed in 1891.
Both maps mark the site for erecting the monument to Jan Kilinski.
The upper terrace of the Kilinski Park (now Stryiskyi Park) holds the inscription "Pomnik Kilinskiego" (Kilinski monument), although the monument was only constructed in 1895, and in a different place.
Maps by J. Chowaniec reveal significant modernization the city underwent. As of 1890, Lviv included about 140 public buildings, of which 40 had arisen in recent years, and 14 had been constructed with city funding. Among the most important new buildings were: the building of the Diet (1881), the building of the “Sokol” sports society (1885), the State Railway Administration (1887), the Gendarmerie Casernes (1890), Post and Telegraph Administration (1890), and the building of the Galician Savings Bank (1889 – 1891).
Maps by Chowaniec also show the consequences of covering the river Poltva/Peltew, and its tributary, Pasika. In 1884 – 1890 the river was driven into concrete canals along Akademicka St. (today’s Shevchenka Blvd.), Karola Ludwika St., Goluchowskiego Sq. (today’s Svobody Blvd.), and Rzezni Sq.
Late nineteenth-century maps show much greater quantities of greenery in the city, thanks to the laying of parks in all city quarters, construction of new and maintenance of old parks or pedestrian walking areas. The Stryiskyi Park was laid in 1879. In 1888 its territory was extended, and the park itself renamed Kilinski Park. Layout of the alleys of the City Garden was changed in 1881 and 1886. A new Lyczakowski Park was laid and planted in 1884. The central promenade of the Waly Hetmanskie was extended and planted in 1888-1890. 1890 also saw the extension and improvement of the garden by the Strzelnica (shooting range) around today’s Lysenka St.
Entry by: Serhii Tereshchenko
Translated by: Pavlo Hrytsak