Остап Тарнавський, Літературний Львів, 1939-1944: спомини (Львів, 1995), с. 35, 37
Representatives of Polish literature formed a large group. Almost all of them were fleeing the German advance (many of them were of Jewish origin as the interwar Polish literature was for the large part created by Jewish writers who were writing in Polish, such as Staff, Tuwim, Slonimski, to mention but the most significant). […] Polish writers who found themselves in Lviv in that period were mostly refugees from the German army advance, some of them even in military uniforms. [[...]] For the most part, those were writers of leftist views. Those were the leftist views not in terms of politics, but rather in terms of literature. They were in opposition to the Polish establishment. Lucjan Szenwald was part of the "Kwadryga" group. He was member of the Polish communist party right before the war. Others, such as Jerzy Putrament who played an important role in a new communist Poland after the war, or Jan Brzoza, and Elżbieta Szemplińska, were in the early stages of their political and writing careers under the auspices of the party.