Jan Brzoza

Jan Brzoza, 1937. Courtesy of: Koncern Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny - Archiwum Ilustracji, Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe
Jan Brzoza (on the right) and Ludwik Tomanek. Courtesy of: Koncern Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny - Archiwum Ilustracji, Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe
Остап Тарнавський, Літературний Львів, 1939-1944: спомини (Львів, 1995), с. 35, 37
Representatives of Polish literature formed a large group. Almost all of them were fleeing the German advance (many of them were of Jewish origin as the interwar Polish literature was for the large part created by Jewish writers who were writing in Polish, such as Staff, Tuwim, Slonimski, to mention but the most significant). […] Polish writers who found themselves in Lviv in that period were mostly refugees from the German army advance, some of them even in military uniforms. [[...]] For the most part, those were writers of leftist views. Those were the leftist views not in terms of politics, but rather in terms of literature. They were in opposition to the Polish establishment. Lucjan Szenwald was part of the "Kwadryga" group. He was member of the Polish communist party right before the war. Others, such as Jerzy Putrament who played an important role in a new communist Poland after the war, or Jan Brzoza, and Elżbieta Szemplińska, were in the early stages of their political and writing careers under the auspices of the party.
Остап Тарнавський, Літературний Львів, 1939-1944: спомини (Львів, 1995), с. 39-40
The new regime took measures to keep the Polish group of writers. Lviv still had one third of Polish population, even though their numbers were reducing due to continuous displacements during the entire period of the first occupation. They started issuing a newspaper in the Polish language, the "Czerwony Sztandar" (The Red Banner), where Polish authors could publish their pieces. [[...]] The editorial board of the "Czerwony Sztandar" was placed in the building of the former concern "Wiek Nowy" at No 4, Sokoła street. [...] In January, 1941, a new Polish magazine in Polish language came out in Moscow, the "Nowe Widnokręgi" (The New Horizons). The editorial board of the magazine had Wanda Wasilewska as an editor-in-chief, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, and Julian Przyboś. In fact, the real editors were Helena Usijewicz, Zofia Dzierżyńska and Broniewska as political instructors. Later, there was also a resolution to publish a quarterly of Polish literature in Kyiv, at the Union of Writers. They invited to the editorial board of this publication Jan Brzoza, Oleksa Desnyak, Stanisław Lec, and Jerzy Putrament, while Elżbieta Szemplińska was appointed as a chief editor. However, the war with Germany did the ill service to this publication. Some works by Polish authors were coming out in Ukrainian translations in Ukrainian issues. It was a chance for some Polish authors to get their desired fees. To be true, the Polish writers who were doing the best in being published were those with access to Russian magazines and other publications. The lead belonged to Wanda Wasilewska and Władysław Broniewski.
Остап Тарнавський, Літературний Львів, 1939-1944: спомини (Львів, 1995), с. 49
Another remarkable festivity was the 50th anniversary of Pavlo Tychyna who was also awarded with the State Prize. The entire delegation of writers from Lviv were commissioned to the Tychyna anniversary celebration. The Ukrainian members in this team were the head Oleksa Desnyak and two older poets Petro Karmanskyi, who boasted that Tychyna himself allegedly confided he learned rhyming on Karmanskyi's poems, Iryna Vilde, Mykola Melnyk, a servile Teodor Kurpita, Yaroslav Tsurkovskyi and former Sovietphilists Stepan Tudor, Yaroslav Halan, Petro Kozlaniuk, and Oleksandr Havryliuk. Being selected for such celebration was considered a recognition of a writer and a reward for his work. The Polish group was better represented because it included [Julian] Przyboś, the best poet in Lviv at that time, and then A. [Adam] Ważyk, A. [Leon] Pasternak, Yu. [Jerzy] Putrament, and Ya. [Jan] Brzoza. Jewish poets were represented by S. [Israel] Aschendorf, N. [Nahum] Bomze, and Sh. [Jehoszua/Jozue] Perle.
Петро Панч, "Львів, Коперника, 42", Вітчизна, 1960, № 2, 172
Polish writers who found themselves in Lviv fleeing the German fascists felt confused and depressed. The tragedy of his people, led by Pilsudski supporters to disaster, especially deeply touched the famous poet Władysław Broniewski. No less depressed were the writers Adolf Rudnicki, Leon Kruczkowski, and Jalu Kurek. Their novels "Żołnierze" (Soldiers), "Kordian i cham" (Kordian and Scurvy), "Grypa szaleje w Naprawie" (The Flu is Rampant in Naprawa) had already been widely known to Soviet readers. There were also writers who lived in Lviv, such as Galina Górska, Jan Brzoza, and a Jewish poet Kenigsberg. At the end, the meeting was also joined by Wanda Wasilewska. In her short fur coat, in soldiers boots and an ear-flapped cap, she came from Rivne, where she met the Red Army that were storming their way forward to Western Ukraine.